please ask the writer to use recommended tools and architectural models to document the architecture as ,it is compulsory part to use the above. it has to be according to the assignment attached.
There are 2 tasks. Task 1 is documenting an EA using ARCHIMATE. and the Task 2 is Reflective report on documenting the EA with the module contents.
Compulsory for the EA document. current EA diagram (ASIS) and (TOBE) EA diagram using ARCHIMATE.
I herewith again attached a sample EA document and the information for the reflective report for your convenience.
Assumptions: Any information included within the report that was not stated in the case study is an assumption made to help give the assignment gravitas and make the scenario as real as possible.
Section I ? Context and Principles
ArchiFinance is a global organization which operates under four business lines (Savings, Life Insurance, Pensions and Investments) and they also serve customers from retail to corporate. ArchiFinance consists of multiple branches which operate independently and number over 4000 staff in the UK business alone. In the early stages, the organization used to approach customers through intermediate agents, which is no longer the case. Despite the fact that they are a well-known organization, their image is still seen as that of operating through third parties. They are also not easily accessible to retail customers but are trying to change that image and to increase their business in the retail sector. They?ve also recently discovered that their business strategy would not align well with their current IT architecture and as such are finding it difficult to make the necessary changes their current IT systems to facilitate this. Also, they are faced with financial market saturation but have to remember to keep the customer experience to a high standard.
Fig. 1 ? Architecture Principles
1 Business Principles
Name Ambition for market dominance
Statement To be well known, and accessible to retail customers
Rationale Market penetration
Implications Market development
Improved development of products and services
Name Customer satisfaction is central
Statement New business model with focus on customer experience
Rationale To attract and engage new and existing customers
Implications Increased interaction with customers through several media
Increase usage of customer-generated data
Name Customer Focus
Statement Provision of a customer centric approach across all business lines
Rationale To retain our customers
Implications Constant engagement of customers to participate in the development of new products and services
Name Business Consolidation
Statement Consolidation of products and services
Rationale To remove the federated business structure brought about by mergers and acquisitions
Implications Centralised business process
No autonomy of decision-making by the line of businesses management.
2 Data Principles
Name Data Integration
Statement Integration and interoperability of systems and processes
Rationale To derive useful business information and improve customer experience
Implications Improved data security management
Availability of data
Name Unified Processes and Data Flows
Statement Integration of back end business processes e.g CRM, WFM
Rationale Streamlining and centralisation of separated business lines
Implications Improved data security management
Improved IT systems
3 Application Principles
Statement Easier product development by adoption of SOA
Rationale To provide economies of scope
Implications Quick and easy deployment of applications across the business
Name Customer View Improvements
Statement Streamlined customer experience using one view for multiple applications
Rationale To keep customer journey pleasant and give assurance of security
Implications One stop shop for customers to interact with all the business lines
4 Technology Principles
Name IT Architecture Optimisation
Statement Optimised IT architecture to facilitate strategy
Rationale To maintain an IT architecture than can cope with the rigours of the present and near future business environment
Implications Integration of latest IT innovation with the Architecture
Name IT Infrastructure Replacement
Statement Replacement of legacy IT infrastructure to speed up processes and product development
Rationale To have a fully optimised IT infrastructure for the development and deployment of products, applications and services
Implications Increased development of products and services and deployment of applications
Name Cloud Computing
Statement Adoption of Cloud Computing technology
Rationale Centralised deployment of application across branches and business lines
Implications Reduction in the purchase of software licenses
Availability of IT infrastructures
Section II ? Description of Current Situation
A. Descriptive Scenario (paragraph(s) describing current situation)
Within the long history of ArchiFinance, there were several mergers and buy-ins. presently it is a federative organization which operates four business lines as medium sized organizations. Each organization owns separate IT infrastructure and architecture which has been changed and consolidated throughout the years. Although, there are still challenges that remain in terms of having fully incorporated the merged businesses and having streamlined processes and systems.
Currently, the organization is in a process of speeding up its own products and business development. Main initiative of the this process is to replace current legacy IT systems which are no longer fit for purpose and to implement an architecture that would enable better product development, customer satisfaction, and ultimately greater business success. They have shown a keen interest in Cloud computing and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This initiative will provide an opportunity to develop customer-centric products and services, which would be core to achieving business goals and objectives.
B. ?AS-IS? models
Fig. 2 ? Business Layer ? (As Is) Organisation Chart
Fig. 3 ? Business Layer ? (As Is) Actors and Roles
Fig. 4 ? Business Layer ? (As Is) Business Function (High Level View)
Fig. 5 ? Business Layer ? (Insurance) Process and Product Model
Fig. 6 ? Business Layer ? (Investments) Process and Product Model
Fig. 7 ? Business Layer ? (Pensions) Process and Product Model
Fig. 8 ? Business Layer ? (Savings) Process and Product Model
Fig. 9 ? Business Collaboration (High Level View)
Fig. 10 ? Technology Layer ? (As Is)
Fig. 11 ? Application Layer ? (As Is)
Section III ? Analyse Current Situation
A. Identify opportunities for Improvement. The purpose of analysing the system is to evaluate it and decide whether or how to improve it.
After deep analysis of the current architecture, it was discovered that various opportunities exist within the organisation that can be used to further bring about business value through improvements. Such opportunities are:
? Looking at the organisation structure it is clear that the way things are at present can be streamlined and improved to make the structure a lot flatter and more accessible to customers.
? The removal of the four business lines or rather consolidation of all four into one business with multiple products will help to improve the customer journey and strengthen the ArchiFinance brand. Thereby saving resources by way of procurement and also duplication of work through crossover departments.
? Work Flow Management (WFM) within ArchiFinance can be improved to help streamline business and technology requirements into a single architecture that would help to achieve overall business goals and objectives.
? A look at the current technology highlighted many areas for improvement. Firstly, the use of many different database schematics in the form of hardware and software will pose a huge problem for integration and streamlining systems and processes. By minimising the use of different types of technology will simplify the entire process and thereby improve the overall architecture.
? Also, the fact that the architecture is split amongst the four business lines is causing the customer journey to be broken and the user experience a not so pleasant one. By consolidating the architecture, the customer journey will be greatly enhanced and give a sense of cohesion and uniformity when using systems and services.
? Given ArchiFinance?s keen interest in cloud computing, implementation of such technology will help to achieve:
o Flexibility/Elasticity: ArchiFinance can quickly and automatically provision IT resources as needed and in an elastic manner. This would take care of situations where the demand for more computing power is required.
o Scalability of infrastructure: With the use of cloud computing, ArchiFinance can greatly reduce infrastructure costs and benefit from energy savings as well as, reduce upgrade and maintenance costs. This would be invaluable as they move from their legacy IT systems which is costing far too much to maintain. Cloud architecture can scale horizontally or vertically, according to demand and provide economies of scale at a lower cost (Kale 2014).
o Broad network access: Access to ArchiFinance?s systems can be achieved through various devices e.g. mobile phones, laptops, and tablets. This would be particularly useful for field engineers and contractors accessing systems through handheld devices. Access can be managed over a simple web-based interface (for example, Amazon Web Services (AWS) can be managed easily through the AWS Management Console).
o Location independence: This will give ArchiFinance a sense of location independence, but also give them the ability to be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter).
o Reliability: ArchiFinance will continue to improve their customers? experience through the use of multiple redundant sites, which will ensure they have effective business continuity and a sound disaster recovery plan.
? The applications used within ArchiFinance will most definitely need to be reconfigured and redeployed within an SOA environment through the use of an Enterprise Service Bus. At present, the applications are using far too many resources and are not very efficient in providing both back end and front end users with the deliverables required and in a timely manner. Again, this is not helped by the fact that they are also split among the four business lines which also has a negative impact on efficiency and effectiveness. By implementing SOA with web services, ArchiFinance can achieve:
o Easy integration of IT systems, which would help to provide multichannel access to their systems, and automation business processes.
o Quicker development of new applications and business processes, by the ability of developers to easily reuse existing services.
o The ability to more easily share data across departments, the enterprise, or World Wide Web, through loosely coupled services for applications.
B. Security Analysis ? Risk, Impact Assessment
? Outsourcing and Off-shoring ? Some outsourcing and off-shoring is in place, however, there are a few questions around signed agreements between ArchiFinance and its partners. They would need to be rectified.
? Mobility of data ? Mobile device management and privacy ? Too many versions of devices have access to the networks and without the proper security encryption. Also looking at leakage by design which is inherent on some mobile operating systems, which requires constant updates to handheld devices.
? Data leakage ? No data leakage has been reported thus far. However, staff need to constantly be reminded of data and information security principles surrounding safeguarding mobile devices and data transfers within and without the organisation.
? IAM ? identity access management
o Single Sign-on
? Location of data warehouses within a secure environment
? Personal and sensitive data locked away and have the correct levels of access controls
? Employee education regarding security concerns and how to safeguard against data breaches and unauthorised access to systems.
Section IV ? Description of New System
Fig. 12 ? Business Motivation Model
A. Goals for New System. Identify at most three to four primary goals for the new system.
To become a favoured retail financial service provider in the retail market.
1. To be well known and accessible to retail consumers
2. Enhanced customer experience
3. Increase market share
4. Attract new customers and retain existing ones
1. To replace all legacy IT systems by beginning of next financial year
2. To centralise all IT and network infrastructure once systems are replaced
3. To consolidate all federated business and IT processes within 6 months
To build customer confidence and gain repeat business in our retail products and services by keeping them happy
1. Offer innovative products to customers
2. Competitive prices and rates
3. Tailor products and services to build customer base
4. Incentivise customers to use our products and services
1. Frequent product updates with new features
2. Engage customers by using their feedback in development of new products and service offerings
3. Constant evaluation of competitors and adjust prices to suit
4. Implement loyalty schemes
5. Sponsorship of community events
1. Highly skilled employees
2. Well-known brand
3. Wide range of products and services
4. Acquisitions and mergers
5. Capital base
6. Wide customer scope
1. Legacy IT systems
2. Use of intermediary agents
3. Small retail market share due to late entry
4. Acquisitions and mergers
5. Federated business structure
1. Cloud computing
2. Centralised IT systems
3. Easy roll-out of products and services through implementation of new IT strategy
4. Consolidation of all business and IT processes
2. Encroachment on market share
Fig. 13 ? Architecture Vision
Vision 1 New IT Architecture
Statement Replacement of legacy IT systems
Rationale To speed up product and business development
Implications Creation of customer-focussed product and services
Increased cost of procurement
New business model.
Vision 2 Cohesive IT and Network Infrastructure
Statement Centralised IT and Network infrastructure.
Rationale For consolidation of mergers and acquisitions
Implications Seamless communication between line of business
Vision 3 Unification of Informations Systems
Statement The removal of separate business and IT processes.
Rationale To facilitate change from being a federated business and having shared knowledge.
Implications Centralised implementation of application and infrastructure
Vision 4 Innovative Application Technology
Statement Development of applications to facilitate customer engagement and help with retention.
Rationale Continuous customer engagement through single customer view. To provide a streamlined user interface for products and services.
Implications Centralised product development and implementation
Vision 5 Increase Retail Market Share
Statement Responsiveness to customers? needs and being more accessible to retail customers.
Rationale To become prominent in the retail market through higher customer satisfaction.
Implications Improvement of customer-focussed services
Training and development of staff
Development of new products and services
B. Constraints for New System. Identify the limitations and restrictions imposed on the new system. These constraints may involve time, money, and other dimensions.
1. Customer experience must be improved
2. Customer centric-approach to all aspects of architecture
3. Cost must not exceed project budget
4. System must be in place by next financial year
C. Business requirements for New System
1. Speed up product and business development
2. Adoption of Cloud Computing
3. Adoption of Service Oriented Architecture
4. Consolidate all technical architecture derived from mergers into a coherent one.
5. More flexibility in terms of operations
6. Alleviate security concerns for using systems by integrating apps from different systems into a single user interface that would appear uninterrupted to the customer
7. Resolve all architectural differences to make way for the use of an ESB.
8. Integration of business processes for CRM, IAM, WFM and ODM
Section V ? Criteria for Ranking Alternative Solutions
A. Evaluation Criteria ? clear definition of each criteria and metrics used to measure each criteria
1. Cost ? Value in terms of pricing vs. benefits.
2. Usability ? Usability factors that we evaluate include, but are not limited to: UI design, UI learnability, UI efficiency (as measured by UI gestures), UI response times (as measured in time), interactive help, and technical documentation.
3. Features ? Includes, but are not limited to: constraint enforcement, forward engineering, reverse engineering, and round-trip engineering.
4. Interoperability ? The ability to work well within various frameworks and be a conduit for future expansion of systems and software.
5. Reliability ? Fault tolerance of the system and the minimum likelihood of failure
6. Responsiveness ? Efficiency in operations and executing tasks and processes in a quick and rapid manner.
7. Availability -The probability that a system will work as required when required during the period of usage.
8. Support ? We evaluate general tool support to include installation, set up, update mechanisms, and technical support.
B. Rationale for Criteria Selected ? why were these criteria selected?
The criteria selected were chosen based on careful evaluation of business requirements and opportunities identified. Ant new system should be based on Cost, Usability, Features, Interoperability, Reliability, Responsiveness, Availability and Support, especially where the new system should be cloud based and operating within and ESB framework. This criteria would help to give a sense of the true strengths and benefits of the new system as it operates within the constraints identified and towards achieving the outlines goals.
Section VI ? Develop Alternative Solutions
A. To-Be models
Fig. 14 ? Solution 1 ? Business Layer ? (To Be) Organisation Chart
Fig. 15 ? Solution 1 ? Business Layer ? (To Be) Actors and Roles
Fig. 16 ? Solution 1 ? Business Layer ? (To Be) Business Function High Level View
Fig. 17 ? Solution 1 ? Business Layer ? (To Be) Collaboration
Fig. 19 ? Solution 1 ? Technology Layer ? (To Be)
Fig. 18 ? Solution 1 ? Application Layer ? (To Be)
NB: Solutions 2 and 3 both utilise the same Business Layer models
Fig. 20 ? Solution 2 ? Technology Layer ? (To Be)
Fig. 21 ? Solution 2 ? Application Layer ? (To Be)
Fig. 23 ? Solution 3 ? Technology Layer ? (To Be)
Fig. 22 ? Solution 3 ? Application Layer ? (To Be)
B. Name, Description and Options Profile for Each Alternative
1. Solution 1
Solution 1 utilises a full suite of cloud technology and applications, which includes SaaS, PaaS, IaaS ESB and SOA. This solution with fully capture the desires of ArchiFinance in the form of their cloud computing aspirations and also help to bring about rapid application and service development which would ultimately improve the overall end user and customer experience. Needless to say that market share and reputation would also gain added value and marked improvements.
2. Solution 2
Solution 2 utilises some cloud technology within an SOA environment. It still includes an architecture that includes both front office and back office functions applications managed by an ESB. It is still based on a min web server and application server which is linked to a mainframe, with disaster recovery zones.
3. Solution 3
Solution 3 although does include some cloud services and architecture is still based on the four business lines model. The assumption was made that although mergers happened in the past it was possibly ArchiFinance?s desire to maintain the four business lines whilst consolidating business functions and services. Applications are not based in an ESB within SOA.
Section VII ? Rank Alternative Solutions
A. Use weighted ranking method to evaluate each alternative
B. Rationale for assigned weights and scores.
Weighting factors are used to define the level of importance of criteria. Assigning meaning to weighting factors is subjective. For this reason, we have kept the number of weighting factors small. For example, use six weighting factors and assign the following meaning:
5 Very high importance
4 High importance
3 Medium importance
2 Low importance
1 Very low importance
0 Not important
Another example of weighting factors is:
Assign Weighting Factors to each Criterion
Weighting factors are assigned to each criterion based on the importance of each. For example, if cost is a key criterion in evaluating alternatives, make sure that it is assigned a high weighting factor relative to other criteria.
It is the responsibility of ArchiFinance to determine the importance of each criterion by assigning weight factors and to understand the trade-offs when assigning weight factors.
Weight each criterion with input from the acceptor and users. The weighting should be distributed to ensure that users do not assign every criterion a high weighting factor.
Determine Scoring Factors and Calculated Weighted Scores
Each criterion is evaluated for each alternative according to how well the alternative meets that criterion. Use satisfaction levels when assigning meaning to scoring factors. For example:
3 Fully satisfies
2 Substantially satisfies
1 Partly satisfies
0 Does not satisfy
Ensure that the meaning of each score is interpreted correctly. For example, if the criterion is ?cost,? then a low cost would have a high satisfaction level.
Calculate Weighted Score Totals
To calculate weighted scores for each criterion, multiply the weighting factor by the scoring factor. Total the weighted scores for each criterion to calculate the weighted score totals for each alternative.
Fig. 24 ? Weighted Evaluation Matrix
Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3
Criteria Weight Score Weighted Score Weighted Score Weighted
Cost 5 5 25 1 5 1 5
Usability 4 5 20 1 4 1 4
Features 3 5 15 1 3 1 3
Interoperability 2 5 10 1 2 5 10
Reliability 1 5 5 1 1 5 5
Responsiveness 2 5 10 1 2 5 10
Availability 3 5 15 1 3 1 3
Total 20 35 100 7 20 19 40
Final Score 5.0 1.0 2.0
Final Weighted Score 25 5 10
The final score is calculated by summing the weighted scores for each criterion in the category and dividing by the sum of the weights for the criteria in the category. The final weighted score is calculated by multiplying the category score by the category weight.
Section VIII ? Conclusion
A. Description of Solution
This solution utilises a cloud web services platform such as Amazon Web services. It includes various forms of application and technical architecture in the form of IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, SOA and ESB, which is consistent with business requirements for ArchiFinance i.e Speed up product and business development; Adoption of Cloud Computing; Adoption of Service Oriented Architecture; Consolidate all technical architecture derived from mergers into a coherent one; More flexibility in terms of operations; Alleviate security concerns for using systems by integrating apps from different systems into a single user interface that would appear uninterrupted to the customer; Resolve all architectural differences to make way for the use of an ESB and Integration of business processes for CRM, IAM, WFM and ODM.
B. Rationale for Selection ? 1 or 2 paragraphs explaining how your solution solved the problem that you defined and how the selection of your solution is justified.
This solution solved the problems highlighted earlier in this document. It also helps to address or rather capitalise on opportunities that arose as part of this process and would give ArchiFinance the ability to scale business based on future performance and market conditions. It should also be pointed out that moving business into the cloud has brought intrinsic benefits to ArchiFinance in not only business but also architectural and technical as well. Such benefits are:
Almost zero upfront infrastructure investment: If you have to build a large-scale system it may cost a fortune to invest in real estate, physical security, hardware (racks, servers, routers, backup power supplies), hardware management (power management, cooling), and operations personnel. Because of the high upfront costs, the project would typically require several rounds of management approvals before the project could even get started. Now, with utility-style cloud
computing, there is no fixed cost or start-up cost.
Just-in-time Infrastructure: In the past, if your application became popular and your systems or your infrastructure did not scale you became a victim of your own success. Conversely, if you invested heavily and did not get popular, you became a victim of your failure. By deploying applications in-the-cloud with just-in-time self-provisioning, you do not have to worry about pre-procuring capacity for large-scale systems. This increases agility, lowers risk and lowers operational cost because you scale only as you grow and only pay for what you use.
More efficient resource utilization: System administrators usually worry about procuring hardware (when they run out of capacity) and higher infrastructure utilization (when they have excess and idle capacity). With the cloud, they can manage resources more effectively and efficiently by having the applications request and relinquish resources on demand.
Usage-based costing: With utility-style pricing, you are billed only for the infrastructure that has been used. You are not paying for allocated but unused infrastructure. This adds a new dimension to cost savings. You can see immediate cost savings (sometimes as early as your next month?s bill) when you deploy an optimization patch to update your cloud application. For example, if a caching layer can reduce your data requests by 70%, the savings begin to accrue immediately and you see the reward right in the next bill. Moreover, if you are building platforms on the top of the cloud, you can pass on the same flexible, variable usage-based cost structure to your own customers.
Reduced time to market: Parallelization is the one of the great ways to speed up processing. If one compute-intensive or data-intensive job that can be run in parallel takes 500 hours to process on one machine, with cloud architectures, it would be possible to spawn and launch 500 instances and process the same job in 1 hour. Having available an elastic infrastructure provides the application with the ability to exploit parallelization in a cost-effective manner reducing time to market.
Automation ? ?Scriptable infrastructure?: You can create repeatable build and deployment systems by leveraging programmable (API-driven) infrastructure.
Auto-scaling: You can scale your applications up and down to match your unexpected demand without any human intervention. Auto-scaling encourages automation and drives more efficiency.
Proactive Scaling: Scale your application up and down to meet your anticipated demand with proper planning understanding of your traffic patterns so that you keep your costs low while scaling.
More Efficient Development lifecycle: Production systems may be easily cloned for use as development and test environments. Staging environments may be easily promoted to production.
Improved Testability: Never run out of hardware for testing. Inject and automate testing at every stage during the development process. You can spawn up an ?instant test lab? with pre-configured environments only for the duration of testing phase.
Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity: The cloud provides a lower cost option for maintaining a fleet of DR servers
and data storage. With the cloud, you can take advantage of geo-distribution and replicate the environment in other
location within minutes.
?Overflow? the traffic to the cloud: With a few clicks and effective load balancing tactics, you can create a complete overflow-proof application by routing excess traffic to the cloud.
Section IX ? References
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SHAILENDRA LANGADE, STEFAN BENTE,UWE BOMBOSCH, 2012. Collaborative Enterprise Architecture. Morgan Kaufmann.
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MYFASHION CASE STUDY
MyFashion is a global fashion destination for 20-somethings. It sells cutting-edge fashion and offers a wide variety of fashion-related content, making it the hub of a thriving fashion community. They sell over 80,000 branded and own-brand products through localised mobile and web experiences, delivering from fulfilment centres in the UK, US, Europe and China to almost every country in the world.
The growth of MyFashion as a business presents a significant challenge in